The best and easiest places for leathermen to meet each other were and are of course the leather bars all around the world. In the mid 1950's the first ones were opened. That was just after the first specifically gay motorcycle clubs were founded. According to Tony DeBlase (former publisher-editor of Drummer magazine and creator of the leather flag in 1989) one of the first bars opened in Los Angeles in the mid-fifties, but by 1957 they also existed in New York and Chicago.
In 1955 Hotel Tiemersma (between mid 1958 and 1959 renamed to Argos) in the Amsterdam Warmoesstraat opened. It did not become famous for its hotel, but for its bar, the first leather bar in Europe according to oral history. It was a very simple place, the bar was actually the living room of the owners. The basement had a passage with a storage room to get to the toilet. This was where the first back room of Amsterdam started. The rooms of the hotel could not be locked very well, so it was really a hotel for easy, heavy and masculine gay sex. Although homosexuality was not punishable in the Netherlands since as early as 1811(!), making public sex possible was, as was making it possible for minors to come into contact with homosexuality. So even in Amsterdam bars had to be careful what they did. The early leather sub culture in Amsterdam is supposed to have been imported from England, Amsterdam being the first city on the continent to have bars like that. Amsterdam already had a thriving gay subculture. Its first gay hotel had opened in 1951. It was a specialized hotel for gay tourists. And there was the famous bar 't Mandje ('the little basket') founded as early as 1927, that had been run by a "leather dyke on bike" for many years at that time. Her bar closed after 55 years in 1982 but has been kept unchanged by her sister and is still there, frozen in time. The Argos Bar still exists too, but is is still open and running although on a different location.
But the general Dutch public was unaware of those bars in their own country. In an excerpt of a Dutch newspaper of March 21, 1959 there is a small eye witness report of the bars in New York City (see picture and translation below). The excerpt was part of a series in which the Dutch public read in amazement about all the dark secrets of 1950's America.
Secrets of America (final)
New York miscellaneous
BLACK LEATHER JACKETS. They often visit the bars on Third-Avenue and the Thirties streets, they also wear leather pants, silver colored chains with buckles on their shoulders and black caps. But these men are absolutely no fascists; they are homosexuals of various ages of the working classes, who, because of their courteous actions and quiet behavior, have an excellent reputation with all bar keepers.
The remark "but these men are absolutely no fascists" shows that the writer fears his readers in 1950s Europe (only about a decade after World War II) would think of Nazi's when they read of people wearing a full leather outfit. But in stead of making a judgemental remark, he stands up for the leathermen.
The general public in the United States was also mostly unaware of the leather subculture. That changed when in June 1964 an article in "Life" magazine, with far more prejudice, drew attention to the gay leather community. To be more precise to the leather bar "Tool Box" in San Francisco (although that name is not mentioned once). The 14 page article "Homosexuality in America" also brought the leather subculture to the attention of isolated and closeted gays of which one reported he finally got to understand that the "S" or "M" badges people wore, didn't stand for "single" or "married"...
HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICA
A secret world grows open and bolder. Society is forced to look at it – and try to understand it.
These brawny young men in their leather caps, shirts, jackets and pants are practicing homosexuals, men who turn to other men for affection and sexual satisfaction. They are part of what they call the "gay world," which is actually a sad and often sordid world.(...)
On another far-out fringe of the "gay" world are the so-called S & M bars ("S" for sadism and "M" for masochism). One of the most dramatic examples is in the warehouse district of San Francisco. Outside the entrance stand a few brightly polished motorcycles, including an occasional lavender model. Inside the bar, the accent is on leather and sadistic symbolism. The walls are covered with murals of masculine-looking men in black leather jackets. A metal collage of motorcycle parts hangs on one wall. (...) This is the antifeminine side of homosexuality," says Bill Ruquy, part owner of the bar. (...) Metal is much in evidence in the room: chains on the wall, the collage and bunches of keys hanging from the customers' leather belts. "That's part of the sadistic business," Ruquy explains. "We used to wear chains on our shoulders. Now the keys are in.
"From Life Magazine June 26, 1964
But bars opened not only in the US and Amsterdam. In London there had been the Bedford Head pub in the Covent Garden area of central London where the EMC bikers used to meet and the Coleherne, in the Earls Court gay area that was a leather bar even before that time. In other European countries like Denmark private clubs had semi-secretive meetings. Slowly the outside world became interested. The Danish gay magazine below, featuring an article called "Besøg i en Læderklub" (Visit to a Leather club), in 1965, describing a private club in Copenhagen, is very clear and very direct!
"You shouldn't believe that there has to be a mass orgy every time.
If that happens, that's good; and if that doesn't happen, that's good too."
In the same issue there was a small personal ad so interested guys could also contact this "circle of friends" as the club called itself.
A link to the full text of this article in English (translation). (Open in a new window.)
In the nineteen seventies and eighties more and more leather bars opened around the world.
"The first actual gay leather bars in the USA, opened in the early 1950's at the Silver Dollar in New York, The Cinema in Los Angeles and Febes and the Tool Box in San Francisco. They were usually shabby looking on the outside and located in industrial and warehouse areas of the city, which are semi-deserted at night time and on weekends. Since being gay was still a crime in most states, they often had to pay off the local cops to stay in business. But they were still subject to sudden raids by the police to satisfy some politician trying to climb the ladder to fame.
In Los Angeles, former Police Chief Ed Davies, from time to time ordered busts of gay bars but made sure the media and TV news crews were there to capture the event. One notorious raid on a leather bar fund raising event 'Slave Auction' by 20 cops, from which much publicity and later law suits developed, began the slow process of more tolerance to gays harmlessly enjoying themselves. But occasionally plain clothes vice squad cops would suddenly enter a gay bar and randomly select a few patrons and take them off to jail where they were charged with lewd conduct and sometimes more, just for patronizing a gay establishment. This fear factor successfully kept leather bars as somewhat scary places to visit."
When the US Supreme Court decisions upheld the right to create, own, possess and distribute porno material and then later to decriminalize homosexuality, overnight, police harassment of gay bars ceased and no time was lost in their rapid expansion all over the US. Thus began the Golden Age of leather bars as can be seen by the above listing of some of those on the East and West coasts in Drummer magazine in 1977.
In San Francisco, there were more than 20 gay leather bars in the industrial area South of Market St. After dark on weekends, hundreds of leather clad guys and their hunters, cruised from one bar to another until closing time at 2 am. Then after-hours cafes and back alleys served as further meeting places. Sad to say, in the 1980's the toll from AIDS made a huge impact on leather communities everywhere, so that many leather bars closed from lack of patrons. But later, the creation of The Folsom Street Fair and Dore Alley in San Francisco and similar events in other cities, has stimulated a huge new interest in leather in all its forms.
Nowadays most bars can be found in the Western world in the bigger cities of North America, Australia and Northern and central Europe. How openly displayed they are is mostly in accordance with the attitude of a certain country towards homosexuality as such.
In Amsterdam, that until recently called itself the 'gay capital of Europe', numerous leather flags can be found in the Warmoesstraat area, where the very open leather bars have always been and still are. In 2004 the flags were almost banned. The inner city council tried to pass regulations to forbid "commercial" flags such as the rainbow flag and the leather flag. But there was such a lot of opposition that after a lot of debate the council decided to not change the rules after all and the flags still fly.
The now existing big open leather events started many years after the bars. The well known International Mr. Leather Elections in Chicago were first held in 1979. Germany's two largest events, the annual Hamburg "Ledertreffen" (or MSC Leather-Party) and the Berlin "Ostertreffen" (Meet at Easter) preceded IML in August 1973 and at Easter 1974 respectively. The Folsom Street Fair in San Francisco, self acclaimed biggest leather event in the world, was first held in 1984. Amsterdam's Leatherpride weekend was the more recent of these, it only started in 1996.
New leather events keep popping up all over the world. In 2004 the San Francisco Folsom Street Fair got a European counterpart in Berlin, Germany. In the first weekend of September thousands of leathermen from all over Europe and indeed the rest of the world gather in the German capital to celebrate a weekend together. Highlight of the weeekend is a big street party in the heart of the Berlin Leather scene. Below is a movie of the 2008 version. It was the fifth edition of Folsom Europe.
This page is from the Leather History pages of the website of Cuirmale, the Netherlands
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org - website: www.cuirmale.nl